Photoshop Outline Selection

Select colors and paint image using the various color and painting tools in Photoshop and duplicate parts of an image using the Clone Stamp tool. Lunapics Image software free image, art & animated Gif creator. Only rectangular selections can be defined as a pattern in some very old versions of Photoshop. Fortunately, there are plenty of free alternatives that allow for a range of versatility and editing options. Navigate the major Photoshop CS6 selection tools with Figure 1. How to Draw a Border Around Text in Photoshop CS5. Convert a selection to a path. Here is yet another variation. com is now LinkedIn Learning! To access Lynda. How to Quickly and Easily Remove a Background in Photoshop. The best video tutorials for the ACA exams from the top certifying teachers in the world!. Select Custom Shape Tool from the Tools panel. Layer functions, selections, adjustments, retouching, masks, filters, effects, and blend modes to manipulate images. Free Online Photo Editor. When selecting a character(s) from a word or paragraph to convert to outlines, the outlines are grouped and become anchored (inline) objects that flow with the text. Discover answers on How to Outline Text in Photoshop Elements 6. The first, is an effect where you create an outline on the type, such as a stroke or bevel. Select the arrow button top right. Adobe Photoshop delivers magic that helps you bring your creative vision to life. Note that the PSD or PNG files' layers make creating usable maps easier. So using the Selection Tool (V), select the Type box, go to Object > Arrange > Bring to Front. Use solid, linear, elliptical, radial, conical gradients and apply bitmaps. Selection Outline Selection Size - The thickness of the border/outline Outside - Inside - Right now, does nothing. The new tool uses Adobe Sensei — the company’s artificial intelligence — to turn a rough rectangular outline […]. Feathering Selections at the Edge of a Document in Photoshop Adobe Photoshop In previous versions of Photoshop, if you selected an area of an image that included an edge area and then chose Select >Modify > Feather, the Feather would be added to the entire selection. Convert to selection. Outlining Objects in Photoshop. Is there a way to make a selection using the marquee tool, and then rotate the marching ants so the sides of the selection are not parallel to the borders of the image? Can this be done with either or both marquee tools? I'm using Elements 10 and Photoshop CS5 on a Windows 7 platform. Photoshop Elements is an excellent package for photographers to enhance and edit digital images. In order to utilize the full power of Photoshop, we need to dive into all three of these topics at the same time. 8 January, 2010 by Tom Harrison in office productivity. Outlining Objects in Photoshop. How It Works. Tool tips from the Photoshop evangelist. Don't click and drag, just click. This tutorial explores some intermediate features of Photoshop. Choose Edit→Stroke. How accurate that selection needs to be depends on what you want to do with it. Click the Custom Shape. To do so, double-click on the blue app. This will open up the Select and Mask window. A pixel may have an alpha value of 0, making it completely transparent, but it's RGB color is actually all white (255,255,255). On Windows Photoshop cs5. com is now LinkedIn Learning! To access Lynda. With Fotor's blur photo editor, now you can blur image background easily and make a big contrast within the depth filed and surface. I obviously disabled the stupid lorum ipsum nonsense, so when I click with the text tool, there is absolutely no indicatation that anything is happening. First, you can use the cursor to drag a new crop around any area of the image you want. ) The Ink Outlines filter offers an interesting "drawn" line effect in combination with a background mottling that recalls the Sponge filter (see page 15). Adding color is simple. On the toolbar, uncheck the "anti-aliased" checkbox. Selecting an object for local adjustments in Photoshop is about to get simpler. Ctrl+Shift+I to invert the selection Alt + Backspace to fill the background with black The boundaries of the water pitcher are a little too close to the edge of the canvas for this effect, so go to Image > Canvas Size, check 'Relative' and add 40px to the width and height values. Layer functions, selections, adjustments, retouching, masks, filters, effects, and blend modes to manipulate images. Pre Requisites: An understanding of the operating system you are using (Mac/PC) PhotoShop CC Basic to Intermediate Course Outline Work Environment Looking at the Work Area. How do you put an outline on fonts in photoshop? Its used to select the outline of an object by following the same or similar pixel range as your move along that profile. A great thing about text, or type in Photoshop is that it. I don't want to remake the entire thing, so I was hoping I could convert it to outlines and just move one peice at a time. Here is my favorite way: hold the Alt key and click the backspace key. And if you don't like the selection you just made, you will get help from the Refine Edge command. I would recommend using the Live Trace tool in Adobe Illustrator. There are 2 options for out line fonts. For example, in the illustration above, use the Subtract From Selection option with another selection tool to remove the part of the sidewalk included in the automatic selection. If you want to stroke an entire layer, you can instead select the layer to stroke in the Layers panel. Your text will be outlined in the default way. To access a tool with multiple functions (i. Apply a layer style of stroke. Knowing how to Photoshop a person into a photograph isn't just a great way to familiarize yourself with basic photo editing skills — it's also a practical skill to have in the digital age. For simple backgrounds, using the standard magic wand tool to select and delete the background may well be more than adequate. I see no cursor and I can't select tpe. Part 1 - In this class, you will learn how to use layers, masks and selections - all together. Select your text layer from the Layers Panel and navigate to Type-> Convert to Shape in the menu bar. After making your selection, then select “Edit| Stroke (Outline) Selection…” from the Menu Bar. Snapping helps with precise placement of selection edges, cropping marquees, slices, shapes, and paths. However, you can also select one area and then invert the selection, so that the rest of your image is selected instead. Free Online Image Editor create your own animated gifs resize crop avatars and images. Start your free trial. It will help to have a basic grasp of features like layers, lassos, color selection, and brushes, but if you follow the instructions carefully you should be able to make it work without too much trouble. With Fotor's blur photo editor, now you can blur image background easily and make a big contrast within the depth filed and surface. ” (If you have all the text highlighted it will create outlines of all the text. Use the ‘Lasso’ tool to go around an object, in this case the scooter. Right click and press select inverse 3. In this excerpt from Photoshop CS5 for Windows and Macintosh: Visual QuickStart Guide, Elaine Weinmann and Peter Lourekas show you how. After your outline is completed, simply press Ctrl+J (Cmd+J) to do so. How It Works. The best video tutorials for the ACA exams from the top certifying teachers in the world!. Here is yet another variation. Select the arrow button top right. Is there a way to disable the fill or make it transparent and leave the outline?. Select your desired settings. You will use a simple reference bitmap image of a cartoon cow, and then use Illustrator to trace over it to make a simple vector image. Then use the color tool to select the text. communicating ideas visually: What tool can you use to outline sections of an image? Lasso Tool: Which Photoshop feature tracks recent changes made to an image?. Feathering Selections at the Edge of a Document in Photoshop Adobe Photoshop In previous versions of Photoshop, if you selected an area of an image that included an edge area and then chose Select >Modify > Feather, the Feather would be added to the entire selection. You should see a simple outline of that shape on your document. For example, let’s show Vincent van Gogh in Detroit. The dotted outline represents the new crop. Select the bitmap image in. Use this. Edit raw image files and other photos with state-of-the-art photo editing. This is particularly helpful if you want to select a complex shape, but don't want to draw a lasso around the entire outline. How to use the Quick Select Tool. The Most Accurate Way to Select and Mask Hair Using the Power of Channels in Photoshop! Accurately mask hair and get rid of outlines or fringes in such a way …. In the Toolbox, select the Ellipse Tool. count on Adobe PhotoShop for the ultimate in creative control. SKETCHBOOK GOES FREE! At Autodesk, we believe creativity starts with an idea. Outlining a drawing in Adobe Photoshop is a method commonly used to transform digital photos into line art. Nonstandard maps. It's still exist, but it is not showing. After your outline is completed, simply press Ctrl+J (Cmd+J) to do so. An artist can select the layer from the list, and then select its visibility and lock status. First, you can use the cursor to drag a new crop around any area of the image you want. I just updated photoshop to 2019 20. up vote 13 down vote accepted. A text box or one or more characters can be selected to convert to outlines. This tool works like a brush: select your brush size, hardness, and spacing, then start painting to create a selection. First create a new layer by clicking on the new layer icon to the left of the bin in the layers palette. This is particularly helpful if you want to select a complex shape, but don't want to draw a lasso around the entire outline. Photoshop CS Series Outline Harness the power of Photoshop Creative Suite - 6 week course Day One Introduction to Photoshop and File Types • Raster vs vector • File types: jpep, tiff, psd, dng • Input, output devices and colour issues • How are colours created in the digital world (255) • Colour spaces and profiles. communicating ideas visually: What tool can you use to outline sections of an image? Lasso Tool: Which Photoshop feature tracks recent changes made to an image?. Is there a way to make a selection using the marquee tool, and then rotate the marching ants so the sides of the selection are not parallel to the borders of the image? Can this be done with either or both marquee tools? I'm using Elements 10 and Photoshop CS5 on a Windows 7 platform. Stroking a selection creates a border around the selection. Once you’ve selected the Crop Tool, you’ll see something that looks like this. Create a new 1000 x 500 px document with all the default settings, then fill it with color #d7c7a8. If you want to stroke an entire layer, you can instead select the layer to stroke in the Layers panel. Have you ever wondered how all of those YouTube creators make thumbnails with the white outline around the focal image? It's a pretty easy thing to do and this blog post will show you how to easily add those cool white outlines in photoshop. Deke dives into the automated selection tools in Photoshop, as well as the Color Range, Focus Area, and Refine Edge commands. Adding color is simple. Without any color, objects have a tendency to blend with each other. Now using the Selection tool, select both; the image and the text, go to Object > Clipping Mask > Make. Thin white outlines around objects after "New Layer via Cut" - why??? - Adobe Photoshop support forum for help, tricks and tips for the graphic design creation of art and digital photography using Photoshop. Outlining a drawing in Adobe Photoshop is a method commonly used to transform digital photos into line art. For smaller gaps at the top, zoom in, use Quick Selection to select them, then hit Delete. - work with multiple layers. Hidden under the Select sub-menu is one of the most useful selection tools available in Photoshop – Color Range. com ) Adobe ® Photoshop. Is there a way to disable the fill or make it transparent and leave the outline?. “I spent a lot of time researching different schools and couldn’t be more happy that I went to Noble Desktop for the Web Design Certificate. How accurate that selection needs to be depends on what you want to do with it. (JUST ADDED: See the bottom of this tutorial for a PSD and a layerstyle that works in Photoshop CS6 and CC) Right click/Cmd click on the layer name in the layers pallette. Select the text in the WordArt or on the PowerPoint slide that you want to add an outline to. Create a selection. Whether you're an amateur photographer interested in editing techniques, or you're aspiring to a career using Photoshop, this course will immerse you in all of the key tools available in Photoshop CS6 and CC. Create compelling HDR images, black-and. Continue on the contour until the path is closed; a thin line appears around the image: Step 5. NOTE: After you have selected your object using whatever means, you may duplicate the outline and turn it into a layer, so that you can further edit it, or save it. The best video tutorials for the ACA exams from the top certifying teachers in the world!. To use this tool left click and hold the mouse down and drag or paint which every makes more sense to you. Take a look at the Options bar at the top of Photoshop when you’ve got the Custom Shape tool selected. Select the paint brush and draw an outline around the image. Finally, we see the result. Select colors and paint image using the various color and painting tools in Photoshop and duplicate parts of an image using the Clone Stamp tool. Draw your selection. communicating ideas visually: What tool can you use to outline sections of an image? Lasso Tool: Which Photoshop feature tracks recent changes made to an image?. 5, select the Lasso tool on the toolbox, as shown in Example 1. To add the same outline to text in multiple places, select the first piece of text, and then press and hold CTRL while you select the other pieces of text. (Don’t see the ‘Quick Selection Tool?’ It may be nested with the ‘Magic Wand Tool’). Photoshop CS3 Shortcuts: PC Here are many keyboard shortcuts for Photoshop CS3, including lesser known and hidden keystrokes! Download PDF Mac shortcuts All shortcut guides. Only rectangular selections can be defined as a pattern in some very old versions of Photoshop. In order to utilize the full power of Photoshop, we need to dive into all three of these topics at the same time. From quick conceptual sketches to fully finished artwork, sketching is at the heart of the creative process. This tutorial is meant to demonstrate the process of adding color to a black and white photo. Note: Select area of image to crop to, then click on an action button: Crop - To clip the image down to the size of the selection Cut - To erase the selection area (make transparent) Copy/Paste - (Stamp or clone tool) To copy out the selected area to clipboard and allow you to paste selection repeatedly if desired. On the toolbar, uncheck the "anti-aliased" checkbox. I can't seem to figure out how this is done when i'm using my PC. ACA Test Prep is the subscription only set of resources from brainbuffet. Then easily apply an effect or cut out your subject and add it to another photo. Select Subject automatically selects the prominent subjects in the image. tips, graphic, tutorial. I've made an extensive tutorial on how to make a triangle in Photoshop where I also cover making an outline for a triangle. Take a look at the Options bar at the top of Photoshop when you’ve got the Custom Shape tool selected. It's a dotted line. Choose the paint bucket tool from the tool bar and with the new background layer selected fill the area with a bright colour of your choice. Transparent pixels are flatten to a white background. If you're applying a pattern to a layer, select the Layer and apply a Pattern Overlay in the Layer styles pop-down. Blank outline maps for each of the 50 U. Easily separate an image from its background, with no outline or jaggy edges. Preview panes are enlarged and it’s easier to see and select images. Cancel risk-free within the first month. With the new transparent layer selection, choose Edit > Stroke from the menu bar. Dan’s thorough demonstrations give you a solid foundation on which to build your Photoshop pro skill set. To load the square brushes into your brush palette: Step 1 With a document open and the brush tool selected, right click the canvas. Converting Text to Outlines in Adobe Photoshop. In the following example, we have a bitmap image that we will convert to vector outline and simplify the outline path using the Simplify dialog box as follows: 1. Perhaps you would like to select an irregular shape and apply an adjustment layer to it or maybe you’d like to select an object in a photography to copy and paste it. Making selections is an essential skill for any Photoshop user. A closed path can be added to, subtracted from, or combined. Outline with the Stroke command in Photoshop Elements 10 Stroking a selection enables you to create colored outlines, or borders, of selections or layers. Try it! Open a new document in Adobe Photoshop CC. If you want to stroke an entire layer, you can instead select the layer to stroke in the Layers panel. Download photoshop custom shapes in CSH vector file format - free for personal and commercial projects. You’ll learn techniques that stretch the bounds of your designs and photography, turning otherwise average pictures into powerfully detailed images that stand out. To remove the background of your image, you may need to use the tools in the diagram below. Click on the path layer to make it active, and then take the tool and select our entire chalk text by just clicking-and-dragging around it. Then easily apply an effect or cut out your subject and add it to another photo. Choose a color by clicking the color box and using the eyedropper to pick up a color from your scrapbook document. Great pack of 7 animals outline brushes - lion, owl, fox, cat, badger, elephant and wolf. Select the text box which contains the text with an outline by clicking the “Text Box 1” item in the Selection pane (8). You should be presented with a small dialogue box, asking you what Tool you want to use to Stroke the path. True to say I am a newbie to Illustrator and didn’t know about this clipping mask and compound path method. You can basically do this for any shape. The dotted outline represents the new crop. If you highlight text in sections, you will have to repeat this step until you have created outlines for all the text in the document. Thanks a lot for sharing this really useful writing. If you want to stroke an entire layer, you can instead select the layer to stroke in the Layers panel. How do you put an outline on fonts in photoshop? Its used to select the outline of an object by following the same or similar pixel range as your move along that profile. Whether cutting out objects, creating masks or selectively applying adjustments, you can make extremely precise selections – even down to individual strands of hair – with ease. Use the Levels tool (Image > Adjustments > Levels) to correct the contrast of the outline. Edit an image here fast and easy online. To do this, select the Eraser tool (you can also use the brackets to. Right click and press select. Layer functions, selections, adjustments, retouching, masks, filters, effects, and blend modes to manipulate images. Apply colour and transparency gradients to fills and outlines. Since we want to select only the falcon, hold your mouse and start drawing around the edges of the bird. If you're applying a pattern to a layer, select the Layer and apply a Pattern Overlay in the Layer styles pop-down. Udemy is an online learning and teaching marketplace with over 100,000 courses and 24 million students. First introduced in Photoshop CS3, the Quick Selection Tool is somewhat similar to the Magic Wand in that it also selects pixels based on tone and color. Read Below For Written Tutorial: 1. Includes 4 style variations optimized for different text sizes. There are a few specific steps involved in this which are below. 2,000+ Photoshop Shapes - Free for Commercial Use. In this howto, we'll talk about raster patterns you can create in Photoshop. The Quick Selection Tool In Photoshop. tips, graphic, tutorial. Free Online Image Editor create your own animated gifs resize crop avatars and images. Move tool tip. Course summary Teaches. The layers panel includes the following different kinds of layers except___. (JUST ADDED: See the bottom of this tutorial for a PSD and a layerstyle that works in Photoshop CS6 and CC) Right click/Cmd click on the layer name in the layers pallette. Create simple and complex selections using Raw processing and core asset management tools offered through Photoshop. You never know when a great idea will strike, so access to fast and powerful creative sketching tools is an invaluable part of any creative process. It result in the image below:. With the Type l ayer selected, choose Stroke from the fx menu. The key is that you have to add a stroke to your text and then either delete the original lettering or make it. You should see a simple outline of that shape on your document. Select Subject automatically selects the prominent subjects in the image. When you work to simplify the paths, you remove the unwanted anchor points with the concern on how the final shape outline looks after the process. It usually involves some touch-up work after Elements makes its initial selection, but the process is quick and easy. Before saving your final silhouette image, you can polish it a bit by getting rid of any small imperfections around its edges. " There are two, or sometimes three steps. Cancel risk-free within the first month. I use this tool so much and I need to be able to see the selection as I'm making it. A great thing about text, or type in Photoshop is that it. Click on the highlighted area, right-click. As you know, layers work like those transparency sheets for overhead projectors: Each new layer adds to the overall effect. Adobe Photoshop Level 1 training at ACTS in Monterey, CA is for Photoshop beginners who are interested in learning the basics; retouching, enhancing images, and much more. concept art. Find Edges. Select rasterize layer. To change the brush tip size, click the Brush pop-up menu in the options bar,. Post you answers or question onPhotoshop Elements Q&A. , blue in this example). To isolate a. When you make a selection in an image in Photoshop, then paste the selection to another image or background, very often you'll find (when it's placed on a different colored background) a. You can do this by pressing Ctrl H (Mac: Command H). Free Online Photo Editor. How to Outline Fonts in InDesign (continued). Now, click on the 'Select and Mask' button on the top toolbar. Can't get the quick selection tool to work after using the alt key to deselect an image. com courses again, please join LinkedIn Learning. If you leave this there will be an obvious yellow outline around the gear when it is viewed in vRigger. To perform the Stroke command in Photoshop Elements, first make a selection to stroke in the image. Make sure your new layer is selected so that the text you type goes on top of it. enjoy guys!. For example, in the illustration above, use the Subtract From Selection option with another selection tool to remove the part of the sidewalk included in the automatic selection. Once the path is refined, press the Load Path as a Selection button at the bottom of the Paths palette, or hit Cmd/Ctrl+Enter. This will make it curve along the path to produce an interesting design. This applies an outline to your image selection or selected layer in Photoshop Elements. 8 January, 2010 by Tom Harrison in office productivity. A text box or one or more characters can be selected to convert to outlines. You can use this technique to add an outline to any object or selection, not just text. Turn a picture into an outline using Photoshop CS4. If you’re moving objects in a multilayer file with the Move tool and you suddenly need to select one of the layers, try this: With the Move tool selected, move the pointer over any area of an image and right-click (Windows) or Control-click (Mac OS). Click on next to button on the Options bar to set geometry options. I use this tool so much and I need to be able to see the selection as I'm making it. Free Photoshop Actions…think about it. enjoy guys!. (Photoshop doesn't care. This tutorial is very important, and almost essential in most Photoshop situations. In the Border Selection dialog box, type 10 pixels for the Width, and click OK. How to Easily Outline Text in Photoshop. The instructors are great, you cover a lot of material and best of all—you get to keep the workbook so you can repeat exercises on your own!” Kathy Hallock. How to Quickly and Easily Remove a Background in Photoshop. Click-and-Drag to Create the Placeholder Frame. Photoshop offers many different techniques to remove a background from an image. In this tutorial, I am going to show you three different ways of creating thick text outline in Adobe Fireworks: stroke, glow and Photoshop Live Effects. I’m looking for the easiest way as the form has to follow the profile of the object and then to fit into each other, the previous post looks to have nailed it. Your text will be outlined in the default way. Stewart ) Hi Mark, have you considered creating your shape layer, add your preferred fill and then use the layer style menu. I still have Photoshop 2018 installed and the lasso tool works as expected. (JUST ADDED: See the bottom of this tutorial for a PSD and a layerstyle that works in Photoshop CS6 and CC) Right click/Cmd click on the layer name in the layers pallette. While dragging a new selection you may also press shift or option to create a perfect square. Applying a 1-2 pixel Feather will smooth things out (Select>Modify>Feather). “I spent a lot of time researching different schools and couldn’t be more happy that I went to Noble Desktop for the Web Design Certificate. By default, transparent areas of an image have a_____ display on the layers panel. Begin by opening the outline image into Photoshop. The process of turning a black and white photo into color can be tricky, depending on the photo you’re working with. Oftentimes, you can make quick work of grabbing hold of particular items that would have otherwise taken far too long with more traditional selection tools. With the Type l ayer selected, choose Stroke from the fx menu. Cancel risk-free within the first month. Choose Select > All. Julieanne Kost is an official Adobe Photoshop evangelist. You can put this border inside or outside the selection border or centered on it. Before saving your final silhouette image, you can polish it a bit by getting rid of any small imperfections around its edges. Navigate the major Photoshop CS6 selection tools with Figure 1. Go to Layer -> Layer Style -> Stroke -> Choose the proper size. Right click and press select. Udemy is an online learning and teaching marketplace with over 100,000 courses and 24 million students. This Photoshop tutorial that will show you how to remove this white outline quickly and easily, in only a few steps. Select Create selection/ Make Selection. Making selections is an essential skill for any Photoshop user. Thanks a lot for sharing this really useful writing. Inkscape's layers are accessible as a drop-down menu in the Status bar, with the lock and visibility toggles beside it affecting the current layer. The Quick Selection tool in photoshop is great for making simple selections fast, then you can tidy up the selection using the Refine Edge controls. Select “Cursors” from the vertical menu on the left. Use the Levels tool (Image > Adjustments > Levels) to correct the contrast of the outline. I use this tool so much and I need to be able to see the selection as I'm making it. A great thing about text, or type in Photoshop is that it. This tutorial shows how to disable a text layer's style leaving its outline. We created a Photoshop Action that would color correct the designs so that they printed on the t-shirts in more vibrant and accurate colors. Part 1 - In this class, you will learn how to use layers, masks and selections - all together. Deke dives into the automated selection tools in Photoshop, as well as the Color Range, Focus Area, and Refine Edge commands. Use the magic want tool and while holding Ctrl, click on the outside and gaps within your drawing or text you wish to outline 2. Cancel risk-free within the first month. Use Layers To Create A Simple Animation in Photoshop 6 If you’re an expert at handling layers, the next challenge is maneuvering them into an animated Web graphic. To start with, I selected the quick selection tool from the Tools panel and applied a succession of brush strokes to select Angelica’s outline. - Hold down "Alt" on the keyboard and select the area that you would like to have subtracted from a selection. Either it looks like it is selecting but the selection disappears as soon as I un-click my mouse. 1001freefonts. Create simple and complex selections using Raw processing and core asset management tools offered through Photoshop. In the Options bar, choose drawing mode: to create vector shape layers click Shape layers button ; to draw paths (shape outlines) click Paths button; to create rasterized shapes in current layer click Fill pixels. Even if you’re commonly creating raster graphics for the web, there are a number of things that Illustrator simply does better than Photoshop so getting to. Stroke a Selection in Photoshop CS5. However, it’s already proved itself to be far more useful than the Magic Wand Tool. Use this tool to create selections in the form of rectangles or squares. For Photoshop 5. Choose Edit→Stroke. How to Quickly and Easily Remove a Background in Photoshop. Making vertical text in Photoshop is a very simple task… so simple, you can do it with just two clicks. Adobe Photoshop CS5 - Take advantage of powerful new photography tools and breakthrough capabilities for superior image selections, image retouching, realistic painting, and a wide range of. Photoshop Elements is an excellent package for photographers to enhance and edit digital images. In the context menu select "Make Work Path". Edit an image here fast and easy online. First, open your photo in Adobe Photoshop. That’s it! You’ll see that the characters are no longer a font, but a vector graphic. Choose Select > All. Adobe Illustrator is one of my absolute favorite applications. In this Photoshop effect tutorial I cover the creation of several different light and glow effects in Photoshop. Select the ‘Pen Tool’ and just separate Background from the Person in the image. First plugin, word. To isolate a. - work with selections.